- Of or relating to meaning, especially meaning in language.
- Of, relating to, or according to the science of semantics.
OK, so semantic has to do with 'meaning' but what has that got to do with coding web pages? Well, when referring to semantic mark-up, it means using the correct tag to accurately describe the type of content.
'Divitis' is a term used to describe an error common amongst newcomers to building CSS-based sites whereby they use too many
divs for everything.
You may have seen on other sites an effect whereby the background colour of a containing element changes colour when you hover over it. A look at their CSS might reveal something like
li:hover. This is also how a lot of CSS dropdown menus work too, by applying a
:hover to a list item.
Shorthand CSS is the method of writing related style properties all on one line instead of several. Using shorthand CSS results in files that are smaller in size and easier to read and maintain. Shorthand CSS is most commonly used on font, border, margin, padding and background styles. The easiest way to explain shorthand CSS is to give some examples.
The key feature of Cascading Style Sheets and probably the one not realised by most newcomers to CSS is that certain style properties are inherited. This means that style properties (mostly those relating to styling text including color, font-size, text-alignment etc.) set on a parent element are inherited up by every descendant element (any element contained within the parent whether directly or indirectly).
Classes and IDs are how we create different styles for different elements on the page. IDs are unique identifiers and can only be used once on any one page. Classes can be reused and applied to different elements.
Usually when people have trouble with their links not doing what they want, it's because they've arranged them in the wrong order. Pseudo classes (links) need to be in this order:
Some people like to use mnemonics to remember this order like: LoVe HAte. Another one I saw once was Lord Vader Has Arrived (or something like that).
So you've set up the styles for the links of your page but you have one section that you want to be different from everything else. To do that, you need to assign a different class or ID.
To centre a CSS layout horizontally, you need to add
margin: 0 auto; to either the
body or a containing element (it's generally a good idea to wrap your whole layout in a containing element and give it a meaningful ID like
#container) and give that element a width. What that does is set the left and right margins to automatically take up the window space not occupied by the specified width.
For IE5 browsers we also have to add
text-align: center; to the same element. This also centres anything in descendant elements so if you don't want your text centred, you then have to reset the
text-align back to left on a descendant element. So you might set the auto margins and
text-align: center; on the
body but then set the
text-align back again on